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The "Soil" is a material of natural construction, produced by nature over the times and  presents in different ways. In purely technical slant point of view, apply the term soil to material of crust that is used to suppor, are learning, excavated or drilled and used on civil works construction works.

Properly, treated with small doses of hydraulic blinders, the soil has your performance physic-mechanical, as the resistance to action of substantially improved water, used on foundation to cover, fact of extremely importance, as those properties distate the limits of physical planning and the choice of structural system, beyond make opportunity to competition with nobles and more eO “solo” é um material de construção natural, produzido pela natureza ao longo dos tempos, e que se apresenta de diversas formas. Sob um ponto de vista puramente técnico, aplica-se o termo solo a materiais da crosta terrestre que servem de suporte, são arrimados, escavados ou perfurados e utilizados nas obras de Engenharia Civil. Tais materiais, por sua vez, reagem sob as fundações e atuam sobre os arrimos, coberturas e construção, resistem aos esforços influenciando as obras segundo suas propriedades e comportamento.



Properly, treated with small doses of hydraulic blinders, the soil has your performance physic-mechanical, as the resistance to action of substantially improved water, used on foundation to cover, fact of extremely importance, as those properties distate the limits of physical planning and the choice of structural system, beyond make opportunity to competition with nobles and more expensive materials.

We have in the soil physical indices like:
 
Porosity
Relation of volume of empties for total volume of analyzed mass soil.
Empity of Index
Relation of  volume of voids by volume of solid soil mass analyzed.
Natural Moisture
Relation of water weight by the weight of solid material of the soil mass analyzed.
Specific Weight
It is the relationship between the weight of a given fragment by volume.
Shape of particles
The solid part of soil consists of particles and grains that have the following forms.
Spherical
Have approximate dimensions in all directions and may, according to the intensity transport suffered be angular or spherical. Ex sandy soils or gravel.
Lamellar
In soils of finer particle size up, where the particles  are presented with these forms there is a predominance of two dimensions on the third.
Placodes and fibrous
Occur on the soils of organic origin, where one of the dimensions predominates over the other two.
Particles Size:
The soil behave is linked, among the others features, to the size of particles that compose them. According to granulometry, the soil are classified on following types, following the size decreasing of the grains:
Gravel;
Sands (thick, mediums or thins);
Silts;
Clays;
And others.
In nature, rarely a soil type "PURE", that is, constitued in your totalitty of an only granulometry. This way, the common is the soil present certain percentage of sand ( thick, medium or thin), silt, clay, gravel, etc.
So, the soil are classified according to the following nomenclature- the predominating element is expressed by a noun and the remains by an adjective.
Exemple: Clayey sand is a predominating sandy soil with certain percentage of clay. so we must always know before the soil type to use it in your application.
Soil Type:
Are so many soil types ( land) found in our surface, but we′ll care about four, that are the most commented in our environment.



Mixed Soil (Land)
Are the most indicated to be used in fabrication of ecological blocks, bricks and floors, since has higher amount of sand. How bigger the amount of sand better its resistance will be, reaching 90% of sand of mixed of particles. In nature, most of the soils is composed of a mix different size particles, in other words, of thin grains (cohesive) with others of bigger granulometry. Your behaviro is directly related to percentages of thin particles existed, in relation to thick ones.

Is important to say that the mixed soils composed of round and/or smooth particles are more susceptible to compaction than those compounds by particles with alive or angular edges. However, when comparing soils with equal grade of compactation, those that has alive particles and/or angular edges (high degree of Roughness) have higher charge capacity, than compounds by particles of smooth texture, yet that these last show lower granulometry.
To the mixed soils, must analyze your composition to correctly decide what kind of machine to use, the mixed soils need an excelent compactation to your mix (compound) to be pressed have a higher economy of cement and that be easy to make the remove of ecological blocks, bricks and floors of machine, giving a higher economy in your fabrication and earning excellent resistance.
CLAY SOIL (EARTH)
One of the main soil types, the clay, is what is removed of springs (source of water storage that supplies the groundwater, strema and rivers) for the fabrication of ceramic block and brick. We ha too soil with high indexof clay like is the case of purple, yellow and others, in Brazil, usually is found in many states. This soil type is good to practice of agriculture, have thin consistence, aren′t ayry, but stores more water.
Are less waterproofing, the water go passing lowly, staying stored. Your composing has a good composition of aluminium oxides (gibbsite) and iron (goethite and hematite).
The particles are thin and flattened, and have tendency of granulometric particles if put one to the others, somehow, that don′t leave almost any space between them.
When wet, these soils are muddy and hard to work. But when finally dry, in general, became so rigid and crack with the heat.


To practice for the fabrication of ecological blocks and brick, depending of high stone, construction residue, industrial residue and others, to create roughness, considerably improving the resistance and lowing the addition of cement. To stay clear, can make ecological blocks and bricks with earths more clay, but depending of the high degree of clay spend more in cement. To economize, we have to improve your granulometry with the mix above cited, including an excellent compactation and that the machine is flexible to attend the expectations imposed by the the clay soil. Example: the clay soil is formed by thin particles if put when moistened one to others, somehow that leave apace between them creating empties between the grains. Because of this, the Hydraulic Machine must have technical mobility to supply the necessities of junctions of granulometric grains, to compact in such way, that remove all the empties of mixing compost..
To this occur, the height limit of ecological blocks and bricks, can′t be determined by the machine′s fabricator, and yes, by machine through your operator that will provide right height. All must be adjusted according to mixing compost, so we′ll have an excelent compost allied to a grat pressing. So, the clay soil give the sensation that is pressed, but it can be just molded. So, by the way that the bricks show, it can appear to be compacted, because of that we must have technical cares and see if it really happened. But worth to remember that is more economic use less clay as possible, because your use in sharp form is only advisabe when not find close to the soil production with index of sand more raised than clay.
ORGANIC SOILS (LAND)


They are the ones that stay in soil surface, like leaves, roots, waste things and others. The organic soil don′t serve and must not be used to ecological blocks, bricks and floors fabrication. The layer that contains organic material depends a lot of soil type, like the local where encounter it too. But, usually, locate more or less in a 30 centimeters of surface that must be removed to extraction of soil considered good to great, being the later must be replaced back to keep your usual features. Exists locals where the organic soil is very deep of crust not being viable remove it, because bellow is proliferate with organic material too.
SOLOS (TERRA) SILTOSOS
With a great amount of silt, usually are very erosive. According to Brazilian Association of technical rules - ABNT, the NBR 6502, about Rocks and soils - terminology of 1995, define silt like: soil that presentes ,low or no placity and that shows low resistance when dry to air. Your domain properties are due to parts constitued by silt fraction.



The silt doesn′t add like the clay, and at the same time, its particles are really small and light. The silt production occurs by mechanical crumbling of rocks, in opposition to chemical erosion that result in clays. This mechanical crumbling can be due to the action of glaciers, by abrasion, by wind erosion, and by the erosion due the waters, as the beds of rivers and streams. In this case, to fabricate ecological blocks and bricks must have the minimum silt to don′t compromisse the qualityof them.
IDEAL SOIL (LAND) FOR THE FABRICATION OF ECOLOGICAL BLOCKS BRICKS AND FLOORS.
The soil is the element that enter in larger proportion in mixing, in other words, in homogenized compost like soil cement, residue of civil or industrial construction, or just residues and other materials used to the fabrication of ecological blocks, bricks and floors.
So, it is very important attemp to the right choice of used materials in this process, mainly of soil (land), that must be selected in manner that allows the use of loer amount of cement.



Must not be used soils that contains organic material, because they can prejudice or change the cement hydration, in case this  is used in a mix, it must be sifted to remove the roots, leave and other impurities that can appear.


Although exist soils that alone can′t be used in the process, exist the possibiliy of mixing two or more types to obtain a viable soil that stabilize and will be able to be used in soil-cement technique and others.
The soil before to be homogenized (mixed) with the cement or others, must be in preference dry , but if  can′t be possible, the recomendable is that the maximum moist because a wet soil is difficult to be pressed by water action, by the factor of water aggregate the grains creating empties inside the mould box where are molded and pressed.
It is important to make before an evaluation of resisting-place of soil(land), that will be used, realizing tests and compactation tests, to analyze the amount that you nedd in your production and don′t lack in middle of desired lot.
Ancient people
Our ancestors learned to use very well the land, millions of constructions will rose over the centuries, many exist until today. Among the oldest with use of soil is the Town of Taos, in New Mexico/EUA, habited and kept by descendend of indians Taos.


If the own mankind′s hystory shows that the soil is firm like rock when used technically in correct way, imagine the result of this addition of other raw materials and mainly, using moderns Hydraulic Machines to pressing the soil leaving them stabilized (soil cement, residues of civil construction) is able to produce a large increase on the mechanical resistance on constructions that use soil,(land).

 
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